- Category : 1882-births
- Type : MGE
- Profile : 2/4 - Hermit / Opportunist
- Definition : Single
- Incarnation Cross : RAX Eden 3
Alsatian politician who was a Socialist member of parliament for Metz in the German Reichstag from 1912 to 1915. After the outbreak of World War I, he declared his loyalty to France and joined the French Army. In response he was stripped of German citizenship on 5 August 1914. He was with famed socialist Jean Jaurès when Jaurès was assassinated on 31 July 1914. After the Allied victory the provinces of Alsace-Lorraine returned to France, he was elected general counsel of the Lower Rhine in 1919 and became a socialist member of the French Parliament for the Bas-Rhin district.
During the Second World War he lived in the French colony of Algiers. He died in Paris on 10 January 1970 at the age of 87.