- Category : 1895-births
- Type : PE
- Profile : 6/2 - Role Model / Hermit
- Definition : Split - Small (21,36)
- Incarnation Cross : LAX Incarnation 2
French pediatrician and geneticist, whose team discovered the chromosomal abnormality, trisomy 21, responsible for Down syndrome. From 1956 to 1958, Turpin - with students Jérôme Lejeune and Marthe Gautier - studied the number and appearance of chromosomes in the cells of children with and without Down syndrome, and in 1958 they found that children with Down syndrome possess 47 chromosomes: they carry three copies (trisomy) of one chromosome instead of the usual two (disomy). This chromosome was designated chromosome 21 in 1960. Turpin discovered, in 1959, the first structural chromosomal abnormality translocation, the second of the two main types of chromosomal abnormalities. He died on 24 May 1988, aged 92, in Paris.