- Category : Actress
- Type : GE
- Profile : 4/1 - Opportunistic / Investigator
- Definition : Single
- Incarnation Cross : JX Depth
Carole Lombard (October 6, 1908 – January 16, 1942) was an American actress. She is particularly noted for her roles in the screwball comedies of the 1930s. She is listed as one of the American Film Institute's greatest stars of all time and was the highest-paid star in Hollywood in the late 1930s, earning around US$500,000 per year (more than five times the salary of the U.S. President). Lombard's career was cut short when she died at the age of 33 in an aircraft crash while returning from a World War II War Bond tour.
Graham Greene praised the "heartbreaking and nostalgic melodies" of her faster-than-thought delivery. "Platinum blonde, with a heart-shaped face, delicate, impish features and a figure made to be swathed in silver lamé, Lombard wriggled expressively through such classics of hysteria as Twentieth Century and My Man Godfrey."
Lombard was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on October 6, 1908. Christened with the name Jane Alice Peters, she was the third child of Frederic Peters and Elizabeth "Bessie" Knight Peters. Her older brothers were Frederic Jr. (born 1902) and Stuart (born 1906). Lombard's parents both descended from wealthy families and her early years were lived in comfort, with the biographer Robert Matzen calling it her "silver spoon period". The marriage between her parents was strained, however, and in October 1914, her mother took the children and moved to Los Angeles, California. Although the couple did not divorce, the separation was permanent. Her father's continued financial support allowed the family to live without worry, if not with the same affluence they had enjoyed in Indiana, and they settled into an apartment near Venice Boulevard.
Described by her biographer Wes Gehring as "a free-spirited tomboy", the young Lombard was passionately involved in sports and enjoyed watching motion pictures. At Virgil Junior High School, she participated in tennis, volleyball, and swimming, and won trophies for her achievements in athletics. At the age of 12, this hobby unexpectedly landed Lombard her first screen role. While playing baseball with friends, she caught the attention of the film director Allan Dwan, who later recalled seeing "a cute-looking little tomboy ... out there knocking the hell out of the other kids, playing better baseball than they were. And I needed someone of her type for this picture." With the encouragement of her mother, Lombard happily took a small role in the melodrama A Perfect Crime (1921). She was on set for two days, playing the sister of Monte Blue. Dwan later commented, "She ate it up".
Aspiring actress, Fox (1922–1926)
A Perfect Crime was not widely distributed, but the brief experience spurred Lombard and her mother to look for more film work. The teenager attended several auditions, but none were successful. When she was 15, and appearing as the queen of Fairfax High School's May Day Carnival, she was scouted by an employee of Charlie Chaplin and offered a screen test to appear in his film The Gold Rush. Lombard was not given the role, but it raised Hollywood's awareness of the aspirant-actress. Her test was seen by the Vitagraph Film Company, who expressed an interest in signing her to a contract. Although this did not materialize, the condition that she adopt a new first name ("Jane" was considered too dull) lasted with Lombard throughout her career. She selected the name "Carol" after a girl she played tennis with in middle school.
In October 1924, shortly after these disappointments, 16-year-old Lombard was signed to a contract with the Fox Film Corporation. How this came about is uncertain: in her lifetime, it was reported that a director for the studio scouted her at a dinner party, but more recent evidence suggests that Lombard's mother contacted Louella Parsons, the gossip columnist, who then got her a screen test. According to the biographer Larry Swindell, it was Lombard's beauty that convinced Winfield Sheehan, head of the studio, to sign her to a $75-per-week contract. The teenager abandoned her schooling to embark on this new career. Fox were happy to use the name Carol, but unlike Vitagraph they disliked her surname. From this point she became "Carol Lombard", the new name taken from a family friend.
The majority of Lombard's appearances with Fox were bit parts in low-budget westerns and adventure films. She later commented on her dissatisfaction with these roles: "All I had to do was simper prettily at the hero and scream with terror when he battled with the villain." She fully enjoyed the other aspects of film work, however, such as photo-shoots, costume fittings, and socializing with actors on the studio set. She embraced the flapper lifestyle and became a regular at the Coconut Grove nightclub, where she won several Charleston competitions.
In March 1925, Fox gave Lombard a leading role in the drama Marriage in Transit, opposite Edmund Lowe. Her performance was well-received, with a reviewer for Motion Picture News writing that she displayed, "good poise and considerable charm." Despite this, the studio heads were unconvinced that Lombard was leading lady material, and her one-year contract was not renewed. Gehring has suggested that a facial scar she obtained in an automobile accident was a factor in this decision. Fearing that the scar—which ran across her cheek—would ruin her career, the 17-year-old had an early plastic surgery procedure to make it less visible. For the remainder of her career, Lombard learned to hide the mark with make-up and careful lighting.
Sennett and Pathé (1927–1929)
After a year without work, Lombard obtained a screen test for the "King of Comedy" Mack Sennett. She was offered a contract, and although she initially had reservations about performing in slapstick comedies, the actress joined his company as one of the "Sennett Bathing Beauties". She appeared in 15 short films between September 1927 and March 1929, and greatly enjoyed her time at the Sennett studio. It gave Lombard her first experiences in comedy and provided valuable training for her future work in the genre. In 1940, she called her Sennett years "the turning point of acting career."
Sennett's productions were distributed by Pathé Exchange, and in 1928 the company began casting Lombard in feature films. She had prominent roles in Show Folks and Ned McCobb's Daughter, where reviewers noted that she made a "good impression" and was "worth watching". The following year, Pathé elevated Lombard from a supporting player to a leading lady. In High Voltage, her first talking picture, she played a sheriff's daughter stranded with a group during a snow storm. Her next film, the comedy Big News, cast her opposite Robert Armstrong and was a critical and commercial success. Lombard was reunited with Armstrong for the crime–drama The Racketeer, released in late 1929. The review in Film Daily wrote, "Carol Lombard proves a real surprise, and does her best work to date. In fact this is the first opportunity she has had to prove that she has the stuff to go over."
Paramount, Powell marriage (1930–1933)
In 1930, Lombard returned to Fox for a one-off role in the western The Arizona Kid. It was a big release for the studio, starring the popular actor Warner Baxter, in which Lombard received third billing. Following the success of the film, Paramount Pictures recruited Lombard and signed her to a $350-per-week contract (gradually increasing to $3,500-per-week by 1936). They cast her in the Buddy Rogers comedy Safety in Numbers, and one critic observed of her work, "Lombard proves an ace comedienne." For her second assignment, Fast and Loose with Miriam Hopkins, Paramount mistakenly credited the actress as "Carole Lombard". She decided she liked this spelling and it became her permanent screen name.
Lombard appeared in five films throughout 1931, beginning with the comedy It Pays to Advertise. Her next two films, Man of the World and Ladies Man, both featured William Powell, Paramount's top male star. Lombard had been a fan of the actor before they met, attracted to his good looks and debonair screen persona, and they were soon in a relationship. The differences between the pair have been noted by biographers: she was 22, carefree, and famously foul-mouthed, while he was 38, intellectual, and sophisticated. Despite their disparate personalities, Lombard married Powell on June 6, 1931, at her Beverly Hills home. Talking to the media, she argued for the benefits of "love between two people who are diametrically different", claiming that their relationship allowed for a "perfect see-saw love".
The marriage to Powell increased Lombard's fame, while she continued to please critics with her work in Up Pops the Devil and I Take this Woman (both 1931). In reviews for the latter film, which co-starred Gary Cooper, several critics predicted that Lombard was set to become a major star. She went on to appear in five films throughout 1932. No One Man and Sinners in the Sun were not successful, but Virtue was well-received. After featuring in the drama No More Orchids, Lombard was cast as the wife of a con-artist in No Man of Her Own. Her co-star for the picture was Clark Gable, who was rapidly becoming one of Hollywood's top celebrities. The film was a critical and commercial success, and Wes Gehring writes that it was "arguably Lombard's finest film appearance" to that point. It was the only picture that Gable and Lombard, future husband and wife, made together. There was no romantic interest at this time however, as she recounted to Garson Kanin: " did all kinds of hot love scenes ... and I never got any kind of tremble out of him at all."
In August 1933, Lombard and Powell divorced after 26 months of marriage. At the time she blamed it on their careers, but in a 1936 interview she admitted that this "had little to do with the divorce. We were just two completely incompatible people." She appeared in five films that year, beginning with the drama From Hell to Heaven and continuing with Supernatural, her only horror vehicle. After a small role in The Eagle and the Hawk, a war film starring Fredric March and Cary Grant, she starred in two melodramas: Brief Moment, which critics enjoyed, and White Woman, where she was paired with Charles Laughton.
Screwball beginnings (1934–1935)
The year 1934 marked a high point in Lombard's career. She began with Bolero, where she and George Raft showcased their dancing skills in an extravagantly-staged performance to Maurice Ravel's Boléro. Before filming began, she was offered the lead female role in It Happened One Night, but turned it down because of scheduling conflicts with this production. Bolero was favorably received, while her next film, the musical comedy We're Not Dressing with Bing Crosby, was a box office hit. Lombard was then recruited by the director Howard Hawks, a second cousin, to star in his comedy film Twentieth Century. He had seen the actress inebriated at a party, where he found her to be "hilarious and uninhibited and just what the part needed". and she was cast opposite John Barrymore.
In Twentieth Century, Lombard played an actress who is pursued by her former mentor, a flamboyant Broadway impresario. Hawks and Barrymore were unimpressed with her work in rehearsals, finding that she was "acting" too hard and giving a stiff performance. The director encouraged Lombard to relax, be herself, and act on her instincts. Lombard responded well to this tutoring and later commented, "In the rushes of Twentieth Century that I have seen, I hardly recognize myself. I certainly am not the Carole Lombard of the past four years." Critics agreed, as reviews for the film commented on her unexpectedly "fiery talent"—"a Lombard like no Lombard you've ever seen". The Los Angeles Times' felt that she was "entirely different" from her formerly cool, "calculated" persona, adding, "she vibrates with life and passion, abandon and diablerie". The film was a hit, and with its rapid dialogue and eccentric characters, Twentieth Century is considered a pioneer in the screwball comedy genre. For Lombard, it proved a watershed in her career and made her a major star.
The next films Lombard appeared in were Now and Forever (1934), featuring the new child star Shirley Temple, and Lady by Choice (1934), which was a critical and commercial success. The Gay Bride (1934) placed her opposite Chester Morris in a gangster comedy, but this outing was panned by critics. After reuniting with George Raft for another dance picture, Rumba (1935), Lombard was given the opportunity to repeat the screwball success of Twentieth Century. In Hands Across the Table (1935), she played a manicurist in search of a rich husband. The actress involved herself with the production, making suggestions and helping her co-star Fred MacMurray with his first comedic performance. Critics praised the film, and Photoplay's reviewer said Lombard had reaffirmed her talent for the genre. It is remembered as one of her best films, and the pairing of Lombard and MacMurray proved so successful that they made three more pictures together.
Continued success (1936–1937)
Lombard began 1936 with Love Before Breakfast, described by Gehring as "The Taming of the Shrew, screwball style". In The Princess Comes Across, her second comedy with MacMurray, she played a budding actress who wins a film contract by masquerading as a Swedish princess. The performance was considered a satire of Greta Garbo, and was widely praised by critics.
Lombard's success continued as she was recruited by Universal Studios to star in the screwball comedy My Man Godfrey (1936). William Powell, who was playing the titular Godfrey, insisted on her being cast as the female lead; despite their divorce, the pair remained friendly and Powell felt she would be perfect in the role of Irene, a zany heiress who employs a "forgotten man" as the family butler. The film was directed by Gregory LaCava, who knew Lombard personally and advised that she draw on her "eccentric nature" for the role. She worked hard on the performance, particularly with finding the appropriate facial expressions for Irene. My Man Godfrey was released to great acclaim and was a box office hit. It received six nominations at the 9th Academy Awards, including Lombard for Best Actress. Biographers cite it as her finest performance, and Frederick Ott says it "clearly established as a comedienne of the first rank."
By 1937, Lombard was one of Hollywood's most popular actresses. Her first release of the year was Swing High, Swing Low, a third pairing with MacMurray. The film focussed on a romance between two cabaret performers, and was a critical and commercial success. It had been primarily a drama, with occasional moments of comedy, but for her next project Lombard returned to the screwball genre. The producer David O. Selznick was eager to make a comedy with the actress, impressed by her work in My Man Godfrey, and hired Ben Hecht to write an original screenplay for her. Nothing Sacred, directed by William Wellman and co-starring Fredric March, satirized the journalism industry and "the gullible urban masses", with Lombard playing a small-town girl who pretends to be dying and finds her story exploited by a New York reporter. Marking her only appearance in Technicolor, the film was highly praised and was one of Lombard's personal favorites. The actress earned nearly half a million dollars in 1937, which was speculated to be the highest salary for a Hollywood actress.
Gable marriage, final roles (1938–1942)
Lombard's most famous relationship came in 1936 when she became involved with Clark Gable. They had worked together previously in 1932's No Man of Her Own, but at the time, Lombard was still married to Powell. Unbeknownst to each other, they had worked as extras on a silent film, Fox's 1926 epic The Johnstown Flood. When Gable and Lombard reunited at the Mayfair Ball, of which Lombard was hostess, their romance began to take off. Gable was married at the time to oil heiress Ria Langham, consequently, the affair was kept quiet.
The situation proved a major motivator in Gable accepting the role of Rhett Butler in Gone with the Wind, as MGM head Louis B. Mayer sweetened the deal for a reluctant Gable by giving him money to settle a divorce agreement with Langham and marry Lombard. Gable divorced Langham on March 7, 1939 and proposed to Lombard at the Brown Derby. On March 29, 1939, during a break in production on Gone with the Wind, Gable and Lombard drove out to Kingman, Arizona and were married in a ceremony with only Gable's press agent, Otto Winkler, in attendance. They bought a ranch in Encino, California previously owned by director Raoul Walsh.
Following the failure of Fools for Scandal Lombard moved on to dramatic films for the next few years. In 1939, Lombard took roles opposite James Stewart in producer David O. Selznick's Made for Each Other (1939) and Cary Grant in In Name Only (1939). She also starred in Vigil in the Night in 1940. Audiences did not respond as well to Lombard in dramatic roles; she made a return to comedy, working with director Alfred Hitchcock in Mr. & Mrs. Smith (1941). The film gave Lombard's career a boost and she followed its success with what proved to be her last film, and one of her most successful, To Be or Not to Be (1942).
When the U.S. entered World War II at the end of 1941, Lombard traveled to her home state of Indiana for a war bond rally with her mother, Bess Peters, and Clark Gable's press agent, Otto Winkler. Lombard was able to raise over $2 million in defense bonds in a single evening. Her party had initially been scheduled to return to Los Angeles by train, but Lombard was anxious to reach home more quickly and wanted to fly by a scheduled airline. Her mother and Winkler were both afraid of flying and insisted they follow their original travel plans. Lombard suggested they flip a coin; they agreed and Lombard won the toss.
In the early morning hours of January 16, 1942, Lombard, her mother, and Winkler boarded a Transcontinental and Western Air Douglas DST aircraft to return to California. After refueling in Las Vegas, TWA Flight 3 took off at 7:07 p.m. and approximately 23 minutes later, crashed into "Double Up Peak" near the 8,300 ft (2,500 m) level of Potosi Mountain, 32 statute miles (51 km) southwest of Las Vegas. All 22 aboard, including 15 army servicemen, were killed instantly.
Gable was flown to Las Vegas after learning of the tragedy to claim the bodies of his wife, mother-in-law, and Winkler, who aside from being his press agent had been a close friend. Lombard's funeral was held on January 21 at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. She was interred beside her mother under the name of Carole Lombard Gable.
Lombard's final film, To Be or Not to Be (1942), directed by Ernst Lubitsch and co-starring Jack Benny, a satire about Nazism and World War II, was in post-production at the time of her death. The film's producers decided to cut part of the film in which Lombard's character asks, "What can happen on a plane?" out of respect for the circumstances surrounding her death. When the film was released, it received mixed reviews, particularly about its controversial content, but Lombard's performance was hailed as the perfect send-off to one of 1930s Hollywood's most important stars.
At the time of her death, Lombard had been scheduled to star in the film They All Kissed the Bride; when production started, her role was given to Joan Crawford. Crawford donated all of her salary for the film to the Red Cross, which had helped extensively in the recovery of bodies from the air crash.
Shortly after her death, Gable (who was inconsolable and devastated by his loss) joined the United States Army Air Forces, as Lombard had asked him to do numerous times after the United States had entered World War II. After officer training, Gable headed a six-man motion picture unit attached to a B-17 bomb group in England to film aerial gunners in combat, flying five missions himself. In December 1943, the United States Maritime Commission announced that a Liberty ship named after Carole Lombard would be launched. Gable attended the launch of the SS Carole Lombard on January 15, 1944, the two-year anniversary of Lombard's record-breaking war bond drive. The ship was involved in rescuing hundreds of survivors from sunken ships in the Pacific and returning them to safety.
Despite being married twice more, Gable chose to be interred beside Lombard in Forest Lawn Memorial Park when he died in 1960.
In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Lombard 23rd on its list of the 50 greatest American female screen legends. She received one Academy Award for Best Actress nomination, for My Man Godfrey. She has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 6930 Hollywood Blvd.
Lombard's Fort Wayne childhood home has been designated a historic landmark. The city named the nearby bridge over the St. Mary's River the Carole Lombard Memorial Bridge.
Lombard has been characterized in several films. Actresses who have portrayed her include:
Jill Clayburgh in Gable and Lombard (1976)
Sharon Gless in Moviola: The Scarlett O'Hara War (1980)
Denise Crosby in Malice in Wonderland (1985)
Anastasia Hille in RKO 281 (1999)
Vanessa Gray in Lucy (2003)