- Category : 1925-births
- Type : PSP
- Profile : 3/5 - Martyr / Heretic
- Definition : Split - Large
- Incarnation Cross : RAX Unexpected 3
French historian, an emeritus professor of contemporary history at several French universities, president of the 'Association des historiens contemporaneistes des universites françaises' and of the 'Comite franfais des sciences historiques.' He published a dozen books and more than a hundred review articles on the history of education and culture.
He died on 9 August 2004.