- Category : 1923-births
- Type : PSP
- Profile : 2/4 - Hermit / Opportunist
- Definition : Single
- Incarnation Cross : RAX Unexpected 1
French orientalist, a specialist in the history of Semitic civilizations.
His work focuses on the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Ugaritic and Phoenician cultures as well as ancient Ethiopia.
He died on 1 September 2004.