- Category : Writer
- Type : GP
- Profile : 6/2 - Role Model / Hermit
- Definition : Single
- Incarnation Cross : LAX Alignment 2
Carlos Drummond de Andrade (October 31, 1902 – August 17, 1987) was perhaps the most influential Brazilian poet of the 20th century. He has become something of a national poet; his poem "Canção Amiga" ("Friendly Song") was printed on the 50 cruzados bill. He is considered to be among the greatest Brazilian poets of all time.
Drummond was born in Itabira, a mining village in Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. His parents were farmers belonging to old Brazilian families of mainly Portuguese, Spanish and distant Scottish origin. He went to a school of pharmacy in Belo Horizonte, but never worked as a pharmacist after graduation. He worked in government service for most of his life, eventually becoming director of history for the National Historical and Artistic Heritage Service of Brazil.
Though his earliest poems are formal and satirical, Drummond quickly adopted the new forms of Brazilian modernism that were evolving in the 1920s, incited by the work of Mário de Andrade (to whom he was not related). He would mingle speech fluent in elegance and truth about the surrounding, many times quotidian, world, with a fluidity of thought.
Drummond's popularity has been credited because a great part of his poetry (especially after lyrical maturity) has acquired an impressive capacity for the translation of ideas, transforming his particular troubles into a tool for universal communication.
One of Drummond's best-known poems is his hymn to an ordinary man, "José." It is a poem of desolation The work of Carlos Drummond is generally divided into several segments, which appear very markedly in each of his books. But this is somewhat misleading, since even in the midst of his everyday poems or his socialist, politicized poems, there appear creations which can be easily incorporated into his later metaphysical canon, and none of these styles is completely free of the others. There is surely much metaphysical content in even his most political poems.
The most prominent of these later metaphysical poems is A Máquina do Mundo (The World's Machine). The poem deals with an anti-Faust referred to in the first person, who receives the visit of the aforementioned Machine, which stands for all possible knowledge, and the sum of the answers for all the questions which afflict men; in highly dramatic and baroque versification the poem develops only for the anonymous subject to decline the offer of endless knowledge and proceed his gloomy path in the solitary road. It takes the renaissance allegory of the Machine of the World from Portugal's most esteemed poet, Luís de Camões, more precisely, from a canto at the end of his epic masterpiece Os Lusíadas.
One of those said segments have been found only after his death: deliberately erotic poetry. That type of poetry has been published in only one book "Moça deitada na grama" (woman laid down in the grass) with the authorization and actual intervention by his son.
Drummond is a favorite ofs American poets, a number of whom, including Mark Strand and Lloyd Schwartz, have translated him. Later writers and critics have sometimes credited his relationship with Elizabeth Bishop, his first English language translator, as influential for his American reception, but though she admired him Bishop claimed she barely knew him. In an interview with George Starbuck in 1977, she said, "I didn't know him at all. He's supposed to be very shy. I'm supposed to be very shy. We've met once — on the sidewalk at night. We had just come out of the same restaurant, and he kissed my hand politely when we were introduced."
Drummond, as a modernist, follows the style proposed by Mário and Oswald de Andrade; making use of free verse, and not depending on a fixed meter. If modernism was to be divided into lyrical and subjective or objective and concrete, Drummond would be part of the latter, similar to Oswald de Andrade.
Drummond was the first great poet to assert himself after the premiere modernist of Brazil and created a unique style dominated by his beautiful writing. His work displays linguistic freedom and free verse. But it goes beyond that: "The work of Drummond reaches – as Fernando Pessoa and Jorge de Lima and Murilo Mendes Herberto Helder – a coefficient of loneliness that detached from the soil of history, leading the reader to an attitude free of references, trademarks or ideological or prospective, "said Alfredo Bosi (1994).
His poetry is divided into three parts:
I, greater than the world – marked by ironic poetry
I, lower than the world – marked by social poetry
I, equal to the world – covers the metaphysical poetry
In the late 1980s, his poetry started to become more erotic.